HOtt PiXX by Vic
Hosted by Victor Allen
THE BODY COMPETITION
FORMER MISS USA VS TENNIS ICON
KENYA MOORE VS. SERENA WILLIAMS
‘Kiss The Ring’
28 DAYS OF FEBRUARY
Daily Calendar Posts!
Recognition of African American Black achievements, accomplishments and honors for each day in the month of February.
INITIATED INTO THE U.S. ARMED FORCES
February 19th, 1942
On this date in 1942, the Tuskegee Airmen were initiated into the armed forces.
The Tuskegee Airmen were Black servicemen of the U. S. Army Air Forces who trained at Tuskegee Army Air Field in Alabama during World War II. They constituted the first African-American flying unit in the U. S. military. In response to pressure from the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the Black press, and others, the War Department in January 1941 formed the all-Black 99th Pursuit Squadron of the U. S. Army Air Corps (later the U. S. Army Air Forces), to be trained using single-engine planes at the segregated Tuskegee Army Air Field at Tuskegee, Ala.
992 pilots graduated from the Tuskegee airfield courses; they flew 1,578 missions and 15,533 sorties, destroyed 261 enemy aircraft, and won over 850 medals. The American army’s 100th pursuit squadron a group of Black aviators fought valiantly over Britain and other European countries.
Willie Rogers, the last surviving member of the original Tuskegee Airmen, died at the age of 101 on 18 November 2016 in St. Petersburg, FL following a stroke. Rogers was drafted into the Army in 1942 and was part of the 100th Air Engineer Squad. Rogers also served with the Red Tail Angels. He was wounded in action, shot in the stomach and leg by German soldiers, during a mission in Italy in January 1943. In 2007, President George W. Bush awarded him the Congressional Gold Medal.
KENYA MOORE CROWNED
2nd AFRICAN AMERICAN MISS USA
February 19, 1993
Moore was born in Detroit, Michigan, the daughter of teenagers Patricia Moore and Ronald Grant, and was raised by her paternal grandmother and aunt after her mother abandoned her at birth. The reality TV show star revealed that her mother never named her. “Since birth, my mother made the decision at age 16 to pretend she never had me. She has never spoken to me,” Kenya wrote. “Even if present in the same room with other people and family, she pretends that I simply don’t exist. She pretends I’m invisible” Kenya revealed on her Bravo blog. She graduated from Cass Technical High School in 1989 and attended Wayne State University, where she majored in psychology and minored in communication. She began modeling at the age of 14 and in the course of her modeling career was the January 1992 cover girl for Chicago-based Johnson Publishing Company’s Ebony Man’s (EM) magazine. She also became a model for the Ebony Fashion Fair cosmetic line. At 22, Kenya Moore won Miss Michigan USA (1993) and then became the second African American woman to win Miss USA.
Moore has produced several film projects, had a book published, and starred in her own exercise video.
1st Black Athlete To Win Winter Olympics Gold Medal
Speed Skating 1000 Meters
February 18th, 2006
At the 2006 Winter Olympics in Turin, Italy, Davis became the first black athlete to win a gold medal in an individual sport at the Olympic Winter Games, winning the speedskating 1000 meter event. He also won a silver medal in the 1500 meter event. At the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, Canada, he duplicated the feat, becoming the first man to successfully defend the 1000 meter gold medal, and repeating as 1500 meter silver medalist.
Davis has set a total of nine world records, three of them current (through April 2016). Davis was born in Chicago, Illinois. His father, Reginald Shuck, picked his son’s name (Shani) out of a Swahili dictionary. The English translation is a mixture of “light” and “weight”.
1st WHITE PROTEST AGAINST SLAVERY BY QUAKERS
February 18th 1688
In 1688, five years after Germantown was founded, Pastorius and three other men petitioned the Dublin Quaker Meeting. The men gathered at Thones Kunders’s house and wrote a petition based upon the Bible’s Golden Rule, “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you,” urging the Meeting to abolish. It is an unconventional text in that it avoids the expected salutation to fellow Quakers and does not contain references to Jesus and God. It argues that every human, regardless of belief, color, or ethnicity, has rights that should not be violated.
The practice of slavery continued and was tolerated in Quaker society in the years immediately following the 1688 petition. Some of the authors continued to protest against slavery, but for a decade their efforts were rejected. Germantown continued to prosper, growing in population and economic strength, becoming widely known for the quality of its products such as paper and woven cloth. Eventually several of the original Krefelders rejoined the Mennonites and moved away from Germantown at least in part because of their insistence not to side with slave-owners. Several other petitions and protests were written by Quakers against slavery in the next several decades, but were based on racist or practical arguments of inferiority and intolerance.
The 1688 petition was the first American of its kind that made a plea for equal human rights for everyone. It compelled a higher standard of reasoning about fairness and equality that continued to grow in Pennsylvania and the other colonies with the Declaration of Independence and the abolitionist and suffrage movements, eventually giving rise to Lincoln’s reference to human rights in the Gettysburg. The 1688 petition was set aside and forgotten until 1844 when it was re-discovered and became a focus of the burgeoning abolitionist movement in the United States. After a century of public exposure, it was misplaced and once more re-discovered in March 2005 in the vault at Arch Street Meetinghouse.
Jazz Pianist & Composer
October 10, 1917 – February 17th, 1982
Monk is the second most recorded jazz composer
was an Americanjazz pianist and composer. Monk had a unique improvisational style and made numerous contributions to the standard jazz repertoire.
He was renowned for his distinctive style in suits, hats, and sunglasses. He was also noted for an idiosyncratic habit observed at times during performances: while the other musicians in the band continued playing, he would stop, stand up from the keyboard, and dance for a few moments before returning to the piano.
Monk is one of five jazz musicians to have been featured on the cover of Time, after Louis Armstrong, Dave Brubeck, and Duke Ellington and before Wynton Marsalis. The Thelonious Monk Institute of Jazz was established in 1986 by the Monk family and Maria Fisher. Its mission is to offer public school-based jazz education programs for young people around the globe, helping students develop imaginative thinking, creativity, curiosity, a positive self-image, and a respect for their own and others’ cultural heritage. In addition to hosting an annual International Jazz Competition since 1987, the Institute also helped, through its partnership with UNESCO, designate April 30, 2012, as the first annual International Jazz Day.
A different side of Monk is revealed in Lewis Porter’s biography, John Coltrane: His Life and Music; Coltrane states: “Monk is exactly the opposite of Miles [Davis]: he talks about music all the time, and he wants so much for you to understand that if, by chance, you ask him something, he’ll spend hours if necessary to explain it to you.“ Blakey reports that Monk was excellent at both chess and checkers.
The most influential African American of the nineteenth century
Abolitionist, Author, Lecturer, Orator, Statesman, Social Reformer
February 16th 1857
February 16, 1857- Frederick Douglass is elected President of Freedman Bank and Trust, a private corporation created by the U.S. government to foster economic growth among African Americans post Civil War.
Initially, the bank saw notable successes as a leading institution of African Americans who wanted a place to invest their money to ensure their financial stability for life after the U.S. slave era, however, bad investments and wrongdoing on the part of previous leadership at the bank led to its downfall. Today, the financial company’s archives are used as a valuable collection of information about the African American community and socio-economic life in the aftermath of emancipation.
Douglass was a firm believer in the equality of all peoples, whether black, female, Native American, or recent immigrant. He was also a believer in dialogue and in making alliances across racial and ideological divides, and in the liberal values of the American Constitution. When radical abolitionists, under the motto “No Union With Slaveholders”, criticized Douglass’ willingness to dialogue with slave owners, he famously replied: “I would unite with anybody to do right and with nobody to do wrong.”
Douglass’s best-known work is his first autobiography Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, published in 1845. At the time, some skeptics questioned whether a black man could have produced such an eloquent piece of literature. The book received generally positive reviews and became an immediate bestseller. Within three years, it had been reprinted nine times, with 11,000 copies circulating in the United States. It was also translated into French and Dutch and published in Europe.
In 1848, Douglass was the only African American to attend the Seneca Falls Convention, the first women’s rights convention, in upstate New York. Elizabeth Cady Stanton asked the assembly to pass a resolution asking for women’s suffrage. Many of those present opposed the idea, including influential Quakers James and Lucretia Mott. Douglass stood and spoke eloquently in favor; he said that he could not accept the right to vote as a black man if women could not also claim that right. He suggested that the world would be a better place if women were involved in the political sphere.
NAT KING COLE
Passes away from Cancer
February 15, 1965
On Valentine’s Day Nat King Cole and his wife briefly left St. John’s to drive by the sea. He died at the hospital early in the morning of February 15, aged 45.
He was widely noted for his soft baritone voice, performing in big band and jazz genres, and was a major force in popular music for three decades. Cole was one of the first African Americans to host a national television variety show, The Nat King Cole Show. His recordings remained popular worldwide after his death
Cole was considered a leading jazz pianist, appearing in the first Jazz at the Philharmonic concerts (credited on the Mercury records label as “Shorty Nadine”—derived from his wife’s name—as he was under exclusive contract with Capitol Records at the time). His revolutionary lineup of piano, guitar, and bass in the era of the big band became a popular setup for jazz trios. It was emulated by many musicians, among them Art Tatum, Oscar Peterson, Ahmad Jamal, and the blues pianists Charles Brown and Ray Charles.
In August 1948, Cole purchased a house from Col. Harry Gantz, the former husband of the silent film actress Lois Weber, in the all-white Hancock neighborhood of Los Angeles. The Ku Klux Klan, still active in Los Angeles well into the 1950s, responded by placing a burning cross on his front lawn. Members of the property-owners association told Cole they did not want any “undesirables” moving into the neighborhood. Cole retorted, “Neither do I. And if I see anybody undesirable coming in here, I’ll be the first to complain.”
Cole’s funeral was held on February 18 at St. James Episcopal Church on Wilshire Boulevard in Los Angeles; 400 people were present, and thousands gathered outside the church. Hundreds of members of the public had filed past the coffin the day before. Notable honorary pallbearers included Robert F. Kennedy, Count Basie, Franck Sinatra, Sammy Davis Jr., Johnny Mathis, George Burns, Danny Thomas, Jimmy Durante, Alan Livingston, Frankie Laine, Steve Allen, and Pat Brown (the governor of California). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nat_King_Cole
MOREHOUSE COLLEGE FOUNDED
February 14, 1867
Morehouse is one of two historically black colleges in the country to produce Rhodes Scholars, and it is the alma mater of many African American leaders, including Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Just two years after the American Civil War, the Augusta Institute was founded by Rev. William Jefferson White,, an Atlanta Baptist minister and cabinetmaker (William Jefferson White’s half brother James E. Tate, was one of the founders of Atlanta University, now known as Clark Atlanta University), with the support of the Rev. Richard C. Coulter, a former slave from Atlanta Georgia, and the Rev. Edmund Turney, organizer of the National Theological Institute for educating freedmen in Washington, D.C. The institution was founded to educate African American men in theology and education and was located in Springfield Baptist Church,(Augusta, Georgia), the oldest independent black church in the United States.
In May 2013, President Barack Obama became the first sitting president in three quarters of a century to deliver a commencement address in Georgia when he took part in Morehouse College’s 129th Commencement ceremony. Franklin Delano Roosevelt gave a summer commencement address at the University of Georgia in 1938. President Obama received an honorary Doctor of Laws degree from Morehouse. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morehouse_College
NEW YORK RENAISSANCE BASKETBALL TEAM
FIRST PROFESSIONAL BLACK TEAM ESTABLISHED
February 13th 1923
The New York Renaissance, also known as the Renaissance Big Five and as the Rens, was an all-black professional basketball team established February 13, 1923, by Robert “Bob” Douglas in agreement with the Renaissance Casino and Ballroom. The Casino and Ballroom at 138th Street and Seventh avenue in Harlem was an entertainment complex including a ballroom that served as the Big Five’s home court. Following each game, a dance took place. The success of the Rens shifted the focus of black basketball from amateur teams to professional teams.
The Rens were one of the dominant basketball teams of the 1920s and 1930s. They were originally known as the Spartan Braves of Brooklyn. The team played its first game on November 3, 1923. That night the Rens played a team of white players; interracial games featured regularly on their schedule, drawing the largest crowds. In its first years, the team strove to beat the Original Celtics, the dominant white team of the time, and claim the title of world champions: in their fifth encounter, the Rens did so for the first time, on December 20, 1925. During the 1932-33 regular season, the Rens compiled a record of 120-8 (six of those losses came at the hands of the Celtics, who the Rens did beat eight times). During that season, the Rens won 88 consecutive games, a mark that has never been matched by a professional basketball team.
The Rens disbanded in 1949 after completing the 1948/49 season of the racially integrated National Basketball League as the Dayton Rens based in Dayton, Ohio. That was also the final season for the NBL, which merged with the all-white Basketball Association of America to form the also (initially) all-white National Basketball Association. The team left New York and moved to Dayton where it was renamed as Dayton Rens.
The Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame inducted the New York Renaissance collectively in 1963. Five of the Rens are individual members: Tarzan Cooper, Pop Gates, Nat Clifton, John Isaacs and founder and coach Bob Douglas. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York_Renaissance
59th ANNUAL GRAMMY AWARDS
Seasoned vs. New Entertainment Fashionista’s
Singer, Songwriter, Producer, Actress
Singer, Songwriter, Producer
Electropop Alternative Artist
Singer, Actress, Producer, Dancer
Singer, Songwriter, Actress, Model, Philanthropist
Model, Fashion Designer, Actress, Producer
Pop Rock Singer
Singer, Songwriter, Producer, Actress, Dancer
FIRST AFRICAN AMERICAN LATE NIGHT TALK SHOW HOST
The original series premiered on January 3, 1989, and ran until May 27, 1994. Nineteen years after the original series left television, Hall returned for a revival that premiered on September 9, 2013 and was cancelled after one season, with the finale airing on May 21, 2014.
Hall had been a host on The Late Show, another talk show on Fox, after the dismissal of Joan Rivers. He was given a 13-week run, during which he became unexpectedly popular. During the monologue of his final appearance as host, Hall stated that the reason he had agreed to only do 13 weeks was because that was as long as he was able to stay, as he had plans “to do other things.”]He subsequently began working on the Eddie Murphy vehicle Coming to America. He ultimately signed with Paramount Television before Fox finally decided, after the fact, that it wanted to keep him. Hall had a fairly long connection to Paramount before this, having been the in-house comedian on Paramount’s weekly music series Solid Gold for several years and serving as a Co-host for its final two years.
Hall announced on April 18, 1994 that he was not going to continue the show, simply saying “it’s time”. The final episode aired on May 27, 1994.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
February 12, 1909
The Race Riot of 1908 in Springfield, Illinois, the state capital and President Abraham Lincoln’s hometown, was a catalyst showing the urgent need for an effective civil rights organization in the U.S. The rate of lynchings of black men at the turn of the century was also at a high. Mary White Ovington, journalist William English Walling and Henry Moskowitz met in New York City in January 1909 to work on organizing for civil rights. They sent out solicitations for support went out to more than 60 prominent Americans, and a meeting date was set for February 12, 1909. While the first large meeting did not take place until three months later, the February date is often cited as the founding date of the organization.
The NAACP was founded on February 12, 1909, by a larger group including African Americans W. E. B. Du Bois, Ida B. Wells, Archibald Grimké, and the previously named whites Henry Moskowitz, Mary White Ovington, William English Walling (the wealthy Socialist son of a former slave-holding family), Florence Kelley, a social reformer and friend of Du Bois, Oswald Garrison Villard, and Charles Edward Russell, a renowned muckraker and close friend of Walling. Russell helped plan the NAACP and had served as acting chairman of the National Negro Committee (1909), a forerunner to the NAACP
NELSON MANDELA IS FREED
Nelson Mandela was released unconditionally from prison
February 11, 1990
Nelson Mandela was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, politician, and philanthropist, who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. He was the country’s first black head of state and the first elected in a fully representative democratic election. His government focused on dismantling the legacy of apartheid by tackling institutionalized racism and fostering racial reconciliation. Ideologically an African nationalist and socialist, he served as President of the African National Congress (ANC) party from 1991 to 1997.
Leaving Victor Verster Prison on 11 February, Mandela held Winnie’s hand in front of amassed crowds and the press; the event was broadcast live across the world. Driven to Cape Town’s City Hall through crowds, he gave a speech declaring his commitment to peace and reconciliation with the white minority, but made it clear that the ANC’s armed struggle was not over, and would continue as “a purely defensive action against the violence of apartheid”. He expressed hope that the government would agree to negotiations, so that “there may no longer be the need for the armed struggle”, and insisted that his main focus was to bring peace to the black majority and give them the right to vote in national and local elections. Staying at the home of Desmond Tutu, in the following days Mandela met with friends, activists, and press, giving a speech to an estimated 100,000 people at Johannesburg’s Soccer City.
The newly elected National Assembly’s first act was to formally elect Mandela as South Africa’s first black chief executive. His inauguration took place in Pretoria on 10 May 1994, televised to a billion viewers globally. The event was attended by four thousand guests, including world leaders from a wide range of geographic and ideological backgrounds. Mandela headed a Government of National Unity dominated by the ANC—which had no experience of governing by itself—but containing representatives from the National Party and Inkatha.
Aged 76, he faced various ailments, and although exhibiting continued energy, he felt isolated and lonely. He often entertained celebrities, such as Michael Jackson, Whoopi Goldberg, and the Spice Girls, and befriended ultra-rich businessmen, like Harry Oppenheimer of Anglo-American as well as Queen Elizabeth II on her March 1995 state visit to South Africa, resulting in strong criticism from ANC anti-capitalists. Despite his opulent surroundings, Mandela lived simply, donating a third of his R 552,000 annual income to the Nelson Mandela Children’s Fund, which he had founded in 1995.] Although dismantling press censorship, speaking out in favor of freedom of the press, and befriending many journalists, Mandela was critical of much of the country’s media, noting that it was overwhelmingly owned and run by middle-class whites and believing that it focused too heavily on scare-mongering about crime.
“I have fought against white domination, and I have fought against black domination. I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons will live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an ideal which I hope to live for and to see realized. But if it needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die.”
— Mandela’s Rivonia Trial Speech, 1964
RENOWNED AUTHOR-BIOGRAPHER DIES
February 10, 1992
American writer and the author of the 1976 book Roots: The Saga of an American Family
ABC adapted the book as a television miniseries of the same name and aired it in 1977 to a record-breaking audience of 130 million viewers. In the United States the book and miniseries raised the public awareness of African American history and inspired a broad interest in genealogy and family history.
In 1976 Haley published Roots: The Saga of an American Family, a novel based on his family’s history, going back to slavery days. It started with the story of Kunta Kinte, who was kidnapped in the Gambia in 1767 and transported to the Province of Maryland to be sold as a slave. Haley claimed to be a seventh-generation descendant of Kunta Kinte, and his work on the novel involved twelve years of research, intercontinental travel, and writing. He went to the village of Juffure, where Kunta Kinte grew up and listened to a tribal historian (griot) tell the story of Kinte’s capture. Haley also traced the records of the ship, The Lord Ligonier, which he said carried his ancestor to the Americas
Haley has stated that the most emotional moment of his life occurred on September 29, 1967, when he stood on the site in Annapolis, Maryland, where his ancestor had arrived from Africa in chains exactly 200 years before. A memorial depicting Haley, reading a story to young children gathered at his feet has since been erected in the center of Annapolis.
Roots was eventually published in 37 languages. Haley won a special Pulitzer Prize for the work in 1977. The same year, Roots was adapted as a popular television miniseries of the same name by ABC. The serial reached a record-breaking 130 million viewers. Roots emphasized that African Americans have a long history and that not all of that history is necessarily lost, as many believed. Its popularity also sparked a greatly increased public interest in genealogy.
BERNARD HARRIS, ASTRONAUT
February 9, 1995
Harris became the first African American to perform an extra-vehicular activity (spacewalk),
during the second of his two Space Shuttle flights.
Harris is a member of many professional,academic and service organizations, including the American College of Physicians, Honor Society of Phi Kappa Phi, and Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity. He is a board member of the Boys and Girls Club of Houston, National Math and Science Initiative, Medical Informatics, Technology and Applications Center, Houston Technology Center, and the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, Board of Scientific Counselors. He has been recognized several times by NASA and other organizations for his professional and academic achievements. In 1996 he received an honorary doctorate from the Morehouse College School of Medicine. He later received honorary doctorates from Stonybrook University, New Jersey Institute of Technology, and the University of Houston. He has also received a NASA Spaceflight medal, a NASA Award of Merit, a fellow of the American College of Physicians and the 2000 Horatio Alger Award.
His second mission was as the Payload Commander on STS-63 ( February 2 1995 – February 11 1995), the first flight of the new joint Russian-American Space Program. Mission highlights, included the first rendezvous (but not docking) with the Russian space station Mir and retrieval of Spartan 204 satellite. During the flight, Harris became the first African-American to walk in space, while fellow astronaut Michael Foale became the first British-born space walker. (It was also on this flight that Eileen Collins became the first female Shuttle pilot.) On this mission, Harris logged 198 hours, 29 minutes in space, completed 129 orbits, and traveled over 2.9 million miles.
He also trained as a flight surgeon at the Aerospace School of Medicine at Brooks Air Force Base in San Antonio in 1988. Dr. Harris received a master’s degree in biomedical science from The University of Texas Medical Branch in 1996. Harris is also a licensed private pilot and a certified scuba diver.
FIRST AFRICAN AMERICAN FEMALE SYNDICATED HOST
February 8, 1986
Oprah Winfrey becomes the first African American woman to host a nationally syndicated talk show. On Feb. 8, 1986, the Oprah Winfrey Show became nationally syndicated.
Her very first show featured the topic “How to Marry the Man or Woman of Your Choice.” Interestingly, that was not the first choice as guest for the day. Producers had worked avidly to book Miami Vice’s Don Johnson, who refused. The show ran every day from 1986 until 2011, when Winfrey decided not to renew her contract.
On February 10, 1993, Winfrey sat down with Michael Jackson for what would become the most-watched interview in television history. Jackson, an intensely private entertainer, had not given an interview in 14 years. The event was broadcast live from Jackson’s Neverland Ranch and was watched by 90 million people worldwide. Jackson discussed missing out on a normal childhood and his strained relationship with his father, Joe Jackson. During the interview, Jackson attempted to dispel many of the rumors surrounding him and told Winfrey he suffered from the skin-pigment disorder known as vitiligo when asked about the change in the color of his skin. While admitting to getting a nose job, he denied all other plastic surgery rumors. Later in the interview, Jackson was joined by his close friend Elizabeth Taylor, her third appearance on the show. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Oprah_Winfrey_Show
MICHAEL JACKSON’S THRILLER
INDUCTED INTO GUINESS BOOK OF WORLD RECORDS
February 7, 1984
Best selling album of all time
The King of Pop set a world record when his sixth studio album, Thriller, reached record-high international and domestic sales. On Feb. 7, 1984, it was inducted into the Guiness World Book of Records for best-selling album of all time. Along with a Guinness record, the album went on to score eight Grammy wins, including Album of the Year, and eight American Music Awards in 1984.
Its worldwide success made it one of the best-selling albums in the world. For weeks after Thriller’s studio release, it would remain No. 1 on music charts across the globe — from Canada to Japan and Australia to Italy. The album included hits such as “Thriller,” “P.Y.T.” and “Beat It.”
Thriller was released on November 30, 1982, and sold one million copies worldwide per week at its peak. Seven singles were released from the album, including “The Girl Is Mine”—which was seen as a poor choice for the lead release and led some to believe that the album would be a disappointment and to suggestions that Jackson was bowing to a white audience. “The Girl Is Mine” was followed by the hit single “Billie Jean”, which made Thriller a chart-topper. Success continued with the single “Beat It”, which featured guitarists Eddie Van Halen and Steve Lukather. The album’s title track was released as a single and also became a hit internationally.
MAYFLOWER OF LIBERIA
February 6th, 1820
1st Organized Black Immigration Back To Africa
It began when 86 free Blacks left New York Harbor on February 6th, 1820 aboard the ship the Elizabeth, which was called the Mayflower of Liberia. They were bound for the British colony of Sierra Leone, a country that welcomed free Blacks from America as well as fugitive slaves. It arrived on March 9th 1820, headed to the colony of Sierra Leone, a country that welcomed fugitives and former slaves from America.
The U.S. Congress granted $100,000 to the American Colonization Society to support their mission and to set sail aboard the “Elizabeth,” also known as the “Mayflower of Liberia.” Upon arrival in March, the colonists reached a small island off the coast of Liberia. Sadly, over the course of the next year, the freedmen suffered, being stricken with malaria. They also faced conflict with the local people, who greeted the newcomers with suspicion. The Mayflower of Liberia brought more than 15,000 former slaves and other Americans of African descent rescued from illegal slave ships to later set sail and join the colony, which was officially named Liberia in 1824. Today, about 5% of Liberia’s population descends from American freedmen and women.
February 6, 2017
MOST MEMORABLE LADIES
SUPER BOWL HALF TIME PERFORMANCE
(Scroll Down for more ’28 Days of February’ Posts)
CHRISTINA AGUILERA 2000
BRITNEY SPEARS 2001
SHANIA TWAIN 2003
JANET JACKSON 2004 (Nipplegate)
DESTINY’S CHILD 2013
KATY PERRY 2015
LADY GAGA 2017
28 DAYS OF FEBRUARY
Daily Calendar Posts!
Recognition of African American Black achievements, accomplishments and honors for each day in the month of February.
February 5, 1990
1st Black President Of The Harvard University Law Review
The job is considered the highest student position at Harvard Law School. The new president of the Review is Barack Obama, a 28-year-old graduate of Columbia University who spent four years heading a community development program for poor blacks on Chicago’s South Side before enrolling in law school. His late father, Barack Obama, was a finance minister in Kenya and his mother, Ann Dunham, is an American anthropologist.
Law reviews, which are edited by students, play a double role in law schools, providing a chance for students to improve their legal research and writing, and at the same time offering judges and scholars a forum for new legal arguments. The Harvard Law Review is generally considered the most widely cited of the student law reviews.
The president of the law review usually goes on to serve as a clerk for a judge on the Federal Court of Appeals for a year, and then as a clerk for an associate justice of the Supreme Court. Mr. Obama said he planned to spend two or three years in private law practice and then return to Chicago to re-enter community work, either in politics or in local organizing. Until the 1970’s the editors were picked on the basis of grades, and the president of the Law Review was the student with the highest academic rank. Among these were Elliot L. Richardson, the former Attorney General, and Irwin Griswold, a dean of the Harvard Law School and Solicitor General under Presidents Lyndon B. Johnson and Richard M. Nixon.
Obama entered Harvard Law School in the fall of 1988, living in nearby Somerville, Massachusetts. He was selected as an editor of the Harvard Law Review at the end of his first year, president of the journal in his second year, and research assistant to the constitutional scholar Laurence Tribe while at Harvard for two years. During his summers, he returned to Chicago, where he worked as an associate at the law firms of Sidley Austin in 1989 and Hopkins & Sutter in 1990. After graduating with a JD degree Magna Cum Laude from Harvard in 1991, he returned to Chicago. Obama’s election as the first black president of the Harvard Law Review gained national media attention and led to a publishing contract and advance for a book about race relations, which evolved into a personal memoir. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barack_Obama
FRANCE ABOLISHED SLAVERY
February 4, 1794
“Code Noir” & Toussaint Louverture
On this date in 1794 France abolished slavery. As a nation they had a lukewarm commitment to abolition. Under Napoleon, they reestablished slavery in 1802 along with the re-institution of the “Code Noir”, prohibiting Blacks, mulattoes and other people of color from entering the French colonial territory or intermarrying with whites.
These orders carried out by General Antoine Richepance brutally re-instituted slavery in the French Antilles in 1802. Thousands of people of color were killed in Guadeloupe alone as they fought to retain their freedom.
While Revolutionary France abolished slavery in France’s colonies in 1794, although it was restored by Napoleon in 1802 in Haiti out of necessity as a pro-English ex-slave revolt had broken-out there led by Toussaint Louverture. Haiti achieved independence from France in 1804 and brought an end to slavery in its territory. The northern states in the U.S. all abolished slavery by 1804. The United Kingdom and the United States outlawed the international slave trade in 1807, after which Britain led efforts to block slave ships. Britain abolished slavery throughout the British Empire with the Slavery Abolition Act 1833, the French colonies re-abolished it in 1848 and the U.S. abolished slavery in 1865. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abolitionism
GENERAL TOUSSAINT LOUVERTURE
20 May 1743 – 7 April 1803)
JOHN ARTHUR “JACK” JOHNSON
March 31, 1878 – June 10, 1946
February 3, 1903 1st African American Heavyweight Champion (Defeats Denver Ed Martin)
Nicknamed the Galveston Giant was an American boxer, who—at the height of the Jim Crow era—became the first African American world heavyweight boxing champion (1908–1915).
Johnson went on to become one of the most dominant champions of his time, and remains a significant historical figure in heavyweight boxing history, with his 1910 fight against James J. Jeffries being dubbed the “fight of the century. Johnson was faced with much controversy when he was charged with violating the Mann Act in 1912, even though there was an obvious lack of evidence and the charge was largely racially based. In a documentary about his life, Ken Burns notes that “for more than thirteen years, Jack Johnson was the most famous and the most notorious African-American on Earth”.
FIGHT OF THE CENTURY’S AFTERMATH
The outcome of the fight triggered race riots that evening—the Fourth of July—all across the United States, from Texas and Colorado to New York and Washington, D.C. Johnson’s victory over Jeffries had dashed white dreams of finding a “great white hope” to defeat him. Many whites felt humiliated by the defeat of Jeffries.
Blacks, on the other hand, were jubilant, and celebrated Johnson’s great victory as a victory for racial advancement. Black poet William Waring Cuney later highlighted the black reaction to the fight in his poem “My Lord, What a Morning”. Around the country, blacks held spontaneous parades and gathered in prayer meetings. White anger over the outcome erupted into race riots in New York, Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, New Orleans, Atlanta, St. Louis, Little Rock and Houston.
In several cases, white mobs attacked or lynched black citizens in revenge. In all, riots occurred in more than 25 states and 50 cities. At least twenty people were killed across the US from the riots, and hundreds more were injured.
The Johnson-Jeffries Fight film received more public attention in the United States than any other film to date and for the next five years, until the release of The Birth of a Nation. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jack_Johnson_(boxer)
” I’m Jack Johnson. Heavyweight of the world.
I’m black. They never let me forget.
I’m black all right! I’ll never let them forget it! “
ALFRED L. CRALLE
September 4, 1866 – May 3, 1920
February 2, 1897 Received Ice Cream Patent
Alfred L. Cralle was born in Kenbridge, Lunenburg County, Virginia in 1866 just after the end of the American Civil War (1861–1865). He attended local schools and worked with his father in the carpentry trade as a young man, becoming interested in mechanics. He was sent to Washington, DC, where he attended Wayland Seminary, one of a number of schools founded by the American Baptist Home Mission Society to help educate African-Americans after the Civil War.
After his education, Carroll settled in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, where he first served as a porter in a drug store and at a hotel. In 1897, at the age of 30, he received a patent for the “Ice Cream Mold and Disher,” a type of ice cream Disher (a scoop with a built-in scraper). He later becomes an assistant manager in a local business association.
Cralle died in a car accident in 1920, survived by his daughter.
February 1, 1902 – May 22, 1967
He was one of the earliest innovators of the then-new literary art form called jazz poetry. Hughes is best known as a leader of the Harlem Renaissance in New York City. He famously wrote about the period that “the negro was in vogue”, which was later paraphrased as “when Harlem was in vogue”.
He wrote novels, short stories, plays, poetry, operas, essays, and works for children. With the encouragement of his best friend and writer, Arna Bontemps, and patron and friend, Carl Van Vechten, he wrote two volumes of autobiography, The Big Sea and I Wonder as I Wander, as well as translating several works of literature into English.
Hughes and his contemporaries had different goals and aspirations than the black middle class. Hughes and his fellows tried to depict the “low-life” in their art, that is, the real lives of blacks in the lower social-economic strata. They criticized the divisions and prejudices within the black community based on skin colors. Hughes wrote what would be considered their manifesto, “The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain”, published in The Nation in 1926:
January 23, 2017
THE VAMPIRE EFFECT PART II
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